Bone and joint health
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- Bone is a living tissue and plays a structural role in the body.
- Because it is a living tissue it continues to be renewed throughout life, with older cells being replaced by new ones.
- Bone is made up of a protein matrix strengthened with minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus. There is a net accretion of calcium in bones during growth.
- Bone mass increases throughout growth until our early twenties, when peak bone mass is achieved. There is then a period of consolidation but, from the age of about 40 years, bone loss exceeds bone formation and bone mass gradually decreases.
- Excessive loss of bone tissue leads to osteoporosis, a condition that is characterised by bone fragility and increased risk of bone fracture. Osteoporosis may lead to mobility problems and even death.
- It is important to optimise bone mass during growth and to maintain the skeleton during adult life in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis developing in later life.
- A number of nutrients play a role in establishing and maintaining healthy bones, in particular, calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K. An active lifestyle is also very important.
- Another bone abnormality, rickets, had largely been eradicated but is now evident in sub-populations of British children. It is characterised by poor mineralization of bone. The adult form of this is osteomalacia.
- © British Nutrition Foundation 2009